What type of mutagen is acridine orange?

What type of mutagen is acridine orange?

Acridine orange (AO) and methylene blue (MB) in the dark were shown to be weak to moderate mutagens (induction of resistance to T5 phage) in repair-deficient strains of Escherichia coli B/r. However, strain WP2 (wild-type) was not mutated by AO in the dark, in confirmation of earlier data.

What is the use of acridine orange stain?

Our Acridine Orange Stain is used as a fluorescent staining agent to detect the presence of bacteria in blood cultures and other bodily fluids. Acridine orange is a fluorochrome dye that can interchalate into nucleic acid.

Is acridine orange a mutagen?

Acridine orange (AO) was selected as the model contaminant since it is frequently reported to be present as one of the major recalcitrant organic pollutants in urban wastewaters and is also a highly potent mutagen [17, 18] .

How does acridine orange cause carcinogenesis?

The photodamage caused by AO was nearly neglected in SV-Huc-1 cells, suggesting a differential effect of this treatment between cancer and normal cells. In summary, AO, as a photosensitizer, disrupts acidic organelles and induces cancer cell death in BC cells under blue-light irradiation.

Is acridine orange used in electrophoresis?

The glyoxalated nucleic acids are then subjected to electrophoresis through either acrylamide or agarose gels in a 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. Furthermore, we have employed the metachromatic stain acridine orange for visualization of nucleic acids in gels.

Is acridine orange light sensitive?

When the pH of the environment is 3.5, acridine orange becomes excited by blue light (460 nm). When acridine orange is excited by blue light, the fluorescent dye can differentially stain human cells green and prokaryotic cells orange (600 nm), allowing for rapid detection with a fluorescent microscope.

Which of the following is an acridine dye?

Basic Yellow 9, an acridine dye.

How do you dilute acridine oranges?

Preparation of reagent: 50 mg acridine orange is dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water to prepare a stock solution and stored in the refrigerator. 1 ml of acridine orange stock solution and 0.5 ml of glacial acetic acid is added to 50 ml of distilled water to prepare a working solution.

Is acridine orange a carcinogen?

in mammalian systems. Based on the present work, acridine orange is not carcinogenic for mouse skin, is not an initiating agent and is, at best, a borderline carcinogen by subcutaneous injection.

Does acridine orange stain discriminate between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?

Researchers have also shown the use of acridine orange as an indicator of bacterial susceptibility to gentamicin [22] AO stain should be modified by combining it with other stains so that it will not only detect bacteria but also be able to differentiate gram positive and gram negative bacteria at the same time.

What are the optical properties of acridine orange?

Optical properties. At a low pH (3.5), when acridine orange is excited by blue light, it can differentially stain human cells green while staining prokaryotes bright orange for detection with a fluorescence microscope.

How does acridine orange stain bacteria and fungi?

Acridine Orange is a fluorochrome dye, which binds to nucleic acids of bacteria and other cells, either in the native or the denatured state. The low pH of the buffer solution results in an orange staining of bacteria and fungi, and a green to yellow staining of human epithelial and inflammatory cells and background debris. ®

What happens to acridine orange in low pH?

In acidic conditions (low pH) the protonated form of acridine orange can form aggregates. The protonated acridine orange monomer emits at around 530 nm, while the protonated aggregate (a H-type aggregate) emits at around 630 nm. So the emission maxima of protonated monomer and aggregates are well separated.

Where did the acridine orange dye come from?

Acridine orange (AO) is a member of the xanthene class of molecules and shares a common aromatic structure with multiple acridine dyes ( 1, 2 ). Acridine dyes were first extracted from coal tar at the end of the nineteenth century.