What is the normal hepatic vein waveform?

What is the normal hepatic vein waveform?

The normal hepatic vein waveform, despite commonly being described as triphasic, has four components: a retrograde A wave, an antegrade S wave, a transitional V wave (which may be ante-grade, retrograde, or neutral), and an antegrade D wave (13).

What does hepatic color flow mean?

There is color aliasing within the hepatic artery, indicating elevated velocities/turbulent flow. A dilated, increased flow within the hepatic artery represents a compensatory mechanism secondary to the lack of hepatic perfusion either by a slow/stagnant flow or by the flow reversal within the main portal vein.

What is US Doppler liver and portal system?

The Liver Doppler Ultrasound assesses the blood that flows into the liver through the portal veins and the blood that flows out of the liver through the hepatic veins which empty into the heart.

What is a normal hepatic artery velocity?

We found that normal peak common hepatic artery velocities not associated with vascular complications averaged ~105 cm/s, whereas patients with hepatic artery thrombosis had low common hepatic artery velocities averaging 50 cm/s. The peak velocities we observed were somewhat higher than reported in adults.

Are hepatic veins Hepatofugal?

Doppler spectrum shows venous flow above the baseline and arterial flow below it; these findings indicate that portal vein flow is hepatopetal whereas hepatic artery flow is hepatofugal.

What is phasic waveform?

Phasic blood flow has velocity and acceleration fluctuations that are generated by cyclic (phasic) pressure fluctuations, which are in turn generated by the cardiac cycle (cardiac phasicity). When phasic blood flow is sampled at spectral Doppler US, it is displayed as a phasic waveform.

What are hepatic arteries?

Anatomical terminology The common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder.

What is hepatic Doppler?

Hepatic doppler ultrasound is a part of the abdominal ultrasound examination. It is used to assess the patency of the hepatic vasculature and the direction and velocity of blood flow. It is a non-invasive procedure that has no contraindications or hazards and could benefit the patients immensely.

Are portal veins Intersegmental?

The branches of the portal vein are intraseg- mental, traveling within the segments of the liver, whereas the branches of the hepatic veins are intersegmental, traveling between the lobes and segments of the liver.

Are hepatic veins Hepatopetal?

Because blood flow is normally hepatopetal in both the portal vein and the hepatic artery, opposite color signals in adjacent branches of these two circulations indicate hepatofugal portal vein flow.

Are portal veins Intersegmental vs Intersegmental?

The major branches of the portal veins run centrally within the segments (intrasegmental) with the exception of the ascending portion of the left portal vein, which runs in the left intersegmental fissure.