What does abnormal free light chains mean?

What does abnormal free light chains mean?

If the amount of free light chains is higher or lower than normal, it can mean you have a disorder of the plasma cells. These include multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells, and amyloidosis, a condition that causes a dangerous buildup of proteins in different organs and tissues.

What does it mean if both kappa and lambda light chains are elevated?

An elevated ratio of kappa to lambda free light chains (FLC K/L) indicates a monoclonal kappa FLC, and an abnormally low FLC K/L indicates a monoclonal lambda FLC. The kappa and lambda FLC may both be elevated in the sera of patients with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, but the FLC K/L is normal.

What is abnormal serum free light chain ratio?

An abnormal kappa-lambda FLC ratio indicates an excess of one light chain type versus the other, and is interpreted as a surrogate for clonal expansion based on extensive testing in healthy volunteers, and patients with myeloma, amyloidosis, and renal dysfunction.

What causes free light chains to increase?

Serum free light chains can also be increased, usually with a normal kappa/lambda ratio, with some connective tissue disorders, inflammatory conditions, neurological conditions, and some cancers but are not typically monitored in people with these conditions.

What is kappa and lambda light chains?

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called kappa and lambda light chains, they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the body such as bacteria and viruses.

What is a serum free light chains test?

Serum free light chain (SFLC) testing is ordered to help detect, diagnose, and monitor plasma cell disorders (dyscrasias), including multiple myeloma, primary amyloidosis, and related diseases or to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Light chains are proteins produced by plasma cells.

Can myeloma affect eyesight?

Uncommonly, myeloma itself may have direct effects on the eye. In some cases, large amounts of paraprotein (the abnormal antibody produced by myeloma cells) can make the blood thicker. This is called hyperviscosity. This can sometimes reduce or even block the blood supply to the eye and cause loss of vision.