What are accessory bones?

What are accessory bones?

An accessory bone or supernumerary bone is a bone that is not normally present in the body, but can be found as a variant in a significant number of people. It poses a risk of being misdiagnosed as bone fractures on radiography.

What makes the medial malleolus?

The medial malleolus is the prominence on the inner side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the tibia. The lateral malleolus is the prominence on the outer side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the fibula.

What is the function of the medial malleolus?

The medial malleolus and the associated deltoid ligament provide for ankle stability on the medial side.

What is it called when you have an extra bone in your ankle?

The os trigonum is an extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus by a fibrous band. The presence of an os trigonum in one or both feet is congenital (present at birth).

Which bone is accessory bone?

Location. Accessory bones of the skull are found in various areas, usually arising in fontanelles and/or adjacent or along the sutures of the skull. The most common location that these accessory bones are found is at the lambdoid and lambdoid (posterior) fontanelle, with some arising at the masto-occipital suture.

What connects to the medial malleolus?

The deltoid ligament attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones.

Can you break the medial malleolus?

When a medial malleolus fracture occurs by itself, it’s called an “isolated” fracture. But a medial malleolus fracture is more often part of a compound injury involving one or both of the other ankle parts. It may also involve injury to a ligament of the leg.

Is accessory navicular a disability?

A separate compensable disability rating for left foot painful accessory navicular bone, plantar fasciitis, or tendinitis is denied. An increased disability rating in excess of 20 percent for the service-connected painful accessory navicular bone over the left foot with plantar fasciitis is denied.

Is the medial malleolus a normal accessory ossification center?

Traction apophysitis is a well-known entity and commonly seen in children involved in sports activities. Accessory ossification centers may appear as normal variant at the medial malleolus in growing children but traction apophysitis is very rare.

How is osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus described?

Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus is a rare condition described occasionally in literature,,,. Medial malleolus could show an accessory ossification center as a normal variant in growing children. Different studies report an incidence of this secondary ossification center between 1.6 and 47%,,,.

When does the medial malleolus fuse with the shaft?

It fuses with the shaft at ~15 years in females and ~17 years in males. The medial malleolus is generally an extension from the distal epiphysis and ossifies in the seventh year. An accessory bone is formed when the separate epiphysis of the medial malleolus fails to fuse with the distal tibia.

Is there pain in the medial malleolus of the ankle?

Examination indicated swelling and tenderness of the medial side of the ankle. Pain was located at the medial malleolus and at the malleolar insertion of the deltoid ligament. Ankle and foot range of motion was completed with painful supination and dorsiflexion at the extreme degrees.