How does streptozotocin induce diabetes mechanism?

How does streptozotocin induce diabetes mechanism?

Following its uptake into the beta cells, streptozotocin is split into its glucose and methylnitrosourea moiety. Owing to its alkylating properties, the latter modifies biological macromolecules, fragments DNA and destroys the beta cells, causing a state of insulin-dependent diabetes.

How does alloxan induce diabetes in rodents?

Alloxan causes diabetes by a mechanism which basically involves partial degradation of the beta (β) cells of pancreatic islets and subsequent compromise in the quality and quantity of insulin produced by these cells.

What is the difference between alloxan and streptozotocin?

Streptozotocin is more specific to beta cells rather than alloxan. strptozotocin has high inductive capacity than alloxan and its less toxic to the pancreas compared to alloxan . It is also more specific to the pancreas while alloxan in addition to being specific to the pancreas also appears toxic to some other organs.

How do rats induce diabetes?

Intra-venous injection of 60mg/kg dose of Streptozotocin in adult wistar rats, makes pancreas swell and at last causes degeneration in Langerhans islet beta cells and induces experimental diabetes mellitus in the 2-4 days.

What type of diabetes does streptozotocin induced?

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic murine models develop type 1 diabetes, due to the cytotoxic glucose analogue streptozotocin (STZ) that is toxic to pancreatic β-cells and causes insulin deficiency.

What type of diabetes does STZ induce?

As diabetes induced by a single STZ injection is often referred to as type 1 diabetes that is caused by STZ’s partial destruction of pancreas, one question often being asked is whether the STZ type 1 diabetes animal model is a good model for studying the mitochondrial mechanisms of β cell glucotoxicity.

How do you induce alloxan?

Alloxan monohydrate should be freshly prepared in saline Overnight fasted animals are given 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally To prevent initial alloxan-induced fatal hypoglycemia, the animals are given glucose (5 ml of 10% solution) by gavage, then they are allowed a 5% glucose in drinking water for the next 24 …

Can alloxan induced type 2 diabetes in rats?

Alloxan and STZ induce T1DM in adults rats. But you can use STZ in newborn rats to induce T2DM. Alloxan cannot be used to induce T2DM. Some available models include fructose-fed, high fat diet fed followed by a low dose of STZ and STZ/nicotinamide.

Does alloxan cause diabetes in humans?

The beta cell toxic action of alloxan is initiated by free radicals formed in this redox reaction. Studies suggests that alloxan does not cause diabetes in humans.

What is meant by alloxan?

: a crystalline compound C4H2N2O4 causing diabetes mellitus when injected into experimental animals.

How do animals induce diabetes?

To induce diabetes, animals of both sexes received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ for 5 consecutive days at 55 mg/kg BW (a dose that is known to induce diabetes in male mice) or for females, 75 mg/kg BW of STZ.

What is streptozotocin used for?

Streptozotocin, produced by Streptomyces achromogenes, is an antineoplastic agent approved by US FDA in 1982 for the treatment of metastatic cancers of pancreatic islet of langerhans. It is an alkylating agent and has been reported to have antibacterial activities [117].

Where does alloxan and streptozotocin accumulate in the pancreatic?

Alloxan and streptozotocin are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells via the GLUT2 glucose transporter. In the presence of intracellular thiols, especially glutathione, alloxan generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a cyclic redox reaction with its reduction product, dialuric acid.

How is alloxan used to induce type I diabetes?

Alloxan-induced diabetes is one of the widely used model to induce Type I diabetes mellitus in the the experimental animals. Alloxan has been found to be selectively toxic to pancreatic beta cells as it preferentially accumulates in the beta cells as glucose analogues.

How does streptozotocin inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion?

The targeting of mitochondrial DNA, thereby impairing the signalling function of beta cell mitochondrial metabolism, also explains how streptozotocin is able to inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion. Alloxan / chemistry Animals Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / chemically induced

How is alloxan toxic to the pancreatic beta cells?

Alloxan has been found to be selectively toxic to pancreatic beta cells as it preferentially accumulates in the beta cells as glucose analogues. In addition, the cytotoxic action of alloxan is mediated mainly by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).